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ALBERTI L. 1807/1968. Account of the Tribal Life and Customs of the Xhosa. (Trans. William Fehr.) Balkema: Cape Town.

AYLIFF J. & J. WHITESIDE 1912/1962. History of the Abambo generally known as Fingoes. Struik: Cape Town.

BEINART W. 1982. The Political Economy of Pondoland 1860 to 1930. Cambridge University Press.

BEINART W. & C. BUNDY (Eds.) 1987. Hidden struggles in rural South Africa: Politics and popular movements in the Transkei and Eastern Cape 1890-1930. Ravan Press: Johannesburg.

BENNIE W. G. 1939. The Ciskei and Southern Transkei Tribes (Xhosa and Thembu). In: A. M. Duggan-Cronin 1939. The Nguni - the Xhosa and Thembu. The Bantu Tribes of South Africa 3:1: 19-42.

BROWNLEE C. 1916/1977. Reminiscences of Kaffir Life and History. Killie Campbell Africana Library: Durban.

BUNDY C. 1988. The Rise and Fall of the South African Peasantry. (2 Edition) David Philip: Cape Town.

CALLAWAY C. 1868. Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus. Vol. I. Davis & Sons: Pietermaritzburg.

COBBING J. 1988. <<The Mfecane as alibi: Thoughts on Dithakong and Mbolompo>>Journal of African History 29: 487-519

COPLAN D. 1985. In Township Tonight: South Africa's Black City Music and Theatre. Ravan Press: Johannesburg.

DOKE C. M. & B. W. VILAKAZI 1953. A Zulu-English Dictionary. Witwatersrand University Press: Johannesburg.

EDGAR R. R. & H. SAPIRE 2000. African Apocalypse: The Story of Nontetha Nkwenkwe, A Twentieth Century South African Prophet. Witwatersrand University Press: Johannesburg.

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HAMMOND-TOOKE W. D. 1975. <> in: M. G. WHISSON & M. WEST (Eds.) Religion and Social Change in Southern Africa: Anthropological Essays in Honour of Monica Wilson. David Philip: Cape Town.

HAMMOND-TOOKE W. D. 1980. (Ed.) The Bantu-Speaking Peoples of Southern Africa. Routledge & Kegan Paul: London.

HAMMOND-TOOKE W. D. 1985. << Who worships whom: Agnates and ancestors among Nguni.>> African Studies 44(1): 47-64.

HIRST M.M. 1985. <<A Quarrel between Half-Brothers.>> The Amathole Museum Xhosa History Series No.1. [Second Edition] Amathole Museum: King William's Town.

HIRST M. M. 1986. <<Two Bulls in One Byre>> The Amathole Museum Xhosa History Series No. 2. [Second Edition] Amathole Museum: King William's Town.

HIRST M. 1990.The Healer's Art: Cape Nguni Diviners in the Townships of Grahamstown. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Rhodes University: Grahamstown.

HIRST M. 1993. <<The Healer's Art: Cape Nguni Diviners in the Townships of Grahamstown, Eastern Cape, South Africa.>> Curare 16: 97-114.

HIRST M., COOK J. & M. KAHN 1996. <<Shades, Witches and Somatisation in the narratives of Illness and Disorder among the Cape Nguni in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.>> Curare 19: 2: 255-282.

HIRST M. 1997. <<A River of Metaphors: Interpreting the Xhosa Diviner's Myth.>> In: P. McALLISTER (Ed.) Culture and the Commonplace. Witwatersrand University Press: Johannesburg.

HIRST M. M. 1997. <<The Utilization of Catha edulis in the Household Economy of Xhosa Farm Inhabitants of the Bolo Reserve, Eastern Cape.>> Journal of Contemporary African Studies 15:1: 119-143.

HIRST M. 1998. Chapter on the Xhosa. In MAGUBANE P. Vanishing Cultures of South Africa. Struik: Cape Town.

HIRST M. 2000. <<Root, Dream and Myth: The Use of the Oneirogenic Plant Silene Capensis among the Xhosa of South Africa.>> Eleusis (The Italian Journal of Psychoactive Plants & Compounds): NEW SERIES 4: 121-149.

HIRST M. 2001. <<Khotso: legendary herbalist.>> Imvubu (Amathole Museum Newsletter) 13:3: 1&6.

HIRST M. 2002/2003. <<Catha edulis And Its Utilization: Local Knowledge In The Eastern Cape.>> Eleusis (The Italian Journal of Psychoactive Plants & Compounds) NEW SERIES 6/7: 3-28.

HIRST M. 2003. <<Kat, the Law and the Somalian Who Got Away.>> PlantLife 28: 11-12.

HIRST M. 2005. <<Dreams and Medicines: The Perspective of Xhosa Diviners and Novices in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.>> Indo-Pacific Journal Of Phenomenology 5:2: 1-22.

HOERNLE W. 1937. <<Magic and Medicine among the Bantu-speaking Peoples of South Africa.>> in: P. CARSTENS (Ed.) The Social Organization of the Nama and Other Essays. Witwatersrand University Press: Johannesburg, 126-47.

HUNTER M. 1936. Reaction to Conquest: Effects of Contact with Europeans on the Pondo of South Africa. Oxford University Press.

KROPF A. & R. GODFREY 1915. A Kaffir-English Dictionary. Lovedale Press: Alice.

MAYER P. 1970. (Ed.) Socialization: the Approach from Social Anthropology. A. S. A. Monograph 8. Tavistock: London.

MAYER P. & I. MAYER 1974 (1961). Townsmen or Tribesmen. Oxford University Press: Cape Town.

MEINTJIES G. 1998. <<Manhood at a price: socio-medical perspectives on Xhosa traditional circumcision.>> Working Papers New Series No. 1. Institute for Social and Economic Research, Rhodes University: Grahamstown.

PEIRES J. B. 1981. The House of Phalo. Ravan Press: Johannesburg.

PEIRES J. B. 1989. The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Cattle-Killing Movement of 1856-57. Ravan Press: Johannesburg.

SMITH M. T., CROUCH N. R., GERICKE N. & M. HIRST 1996. <<Psychoactive constituents of the genus Sceletium N. E. BR. And other mesembryanthemaceae: a review.>> Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50: 119-130.

SMITH M. T., FIELD C. R., CROUCH N. R. & M. HIRST 1998. <<The Distribution Of mesaembrine Alkaloids In Selected Taxa Of The Mesembryanthemaceae And Their Modification In The Sceletium Derived 'Kougoed'.>> Pharmaceutical Biology 36: 3: 1-7.

SOGA J. H. 1930. The South-Eastern Bantu. Witwatersrand University Press: Johannesburg.

SOGA J. H. 1932. The Ama-Xosa: Life and Customs. Lovedale Press: Alice.

THEAL G. M. 1882. Kaffir Folk-Lore. W. Swan Sonnenschein & CO: London.

WEST M. 1975. Bishops and Prophets in a Black City: African Independent Churches in Soweto, Johannesburg. David Philip: Cape Town.

WILLIAMS D. 1967. When Races Meet: The Life and Times of William Ritchie Thomson. Afrikaanse Pers: Johannesburg.

WILSON M. 1982. <<The Nguni People.>> In: M. WILSON & L. THOMPSON (Eds.) A History of South Africa to 1870. David Philip: Cape Town.