Idabi lenkululeko eQonce

The following oral excerpts are displayed, in context, in the struggle exhibition, Idabi lenkululeko eQonce. We conducted 50 interviews for this project which are preserved in the museum archives. Copyright restrictions apply. We want to express our sincere gratitude to every person who agreed to be interviewed in our quest to understand the local struggle for freedom.

The project of collecting local struggle narratives is a vital and ongoing endeavour. A recording booth is available in the exhibition for new narratives.

Three interviews consist of readings adapted from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s (TRC) Final Report ( and and “Out of the fire : Where Schooling Worked in Times of Crisis, All Saints College, South Africa.”

First Activists

Thabo Mbeki, ‘I am an African’, 1996 (recording)

Early Resistance

Nonkosi Limba-Mpondo on her early memories of Poqo

PAC activist on the Qonce police station attack, 1963

Miriam Makeba: Nants’ indod’ emnyama Verwoerd Pasop (recording)

Bhisho Massacre

Albert Whittles and the Museum Historian discuss the aim of the march

Phila Ngqumba recalls the trauma of the shooting

Brian Osteridge analyses the meaning of the massacre

Albert Whittles reflects on the outbreak of violence after the massacre

Phila Ngqumba remembers Grey Hospital after the massacre

King Golf Club Attack, 1992

Beth Savage (reading based on TRC report) on her journey

Thembelani Xundu (reading based on TRC report) on his role

The Road to Freedom (Religion)

Rev. Colin Jooste on Black Theology

Canon Pat Ncaca on malicious damage to church property

Paul Fahy on the KAIROS document


Ntombazana Botha on the role of the UDF

Albert Whittles on the formation of the Friends of the UDF in 1983

Gordon Smith (UDF activist) on co-operation

School as Battle Ground

Gordon Smith on being fired for his political convictions

Khanyisa Matsheke on police brutality (adopted from “Out of the Fire”)

Lunga Lefume on the school boycott at Forbes Grant


Mthunzi Mpondo comments on school and community rugby

Phila Ngqumba on the amalgamation of a Rugby Union

Brian Osteridge, Sports fields were often sites of struggle

On Detention

Ntombazana Botha on surviving detention

John Smith on the psychological effects of detention

Rev. Colin Jooste on sexual abuse and detention

Icons: Steve Tshwete

Brian Osteridge on Tshwete and the Security Police

Mthunzi and Pam Mpondo on Steve Tshwete and the Ciskei Cabinet

Icons: Griffiths Mxenge

Ntombazana Botha on Mxenge’s strong persona

Churchill Mxenge recalls Mxenge’s generosity

Icons: Victoria Mxenge

Churchill Mxenge on her presence at the Cradock Four funeral

Promotia Mangcu worked as part-time secretary for the Mxenges

Icons: Mapetla Mohapi

Nohle Mohapi-Mbetshu on her husband’s political life.

Promotia Mangcu remembering Mohapi at home

Icons: Steve Biko

Rev. Paul Fahy on the impact of personal liberation

Promotia Mangcu recalls a Forbes Grant Secondary farewell party

Icons: Victor Wilson

Valda van Heerden gives a private account of her father’s life.